Thalidomide: The Chemistry Mistake That Killed Thousands of Babies

I see some parallels between the shifts of fashion in mathematics and in music. In music the popular new styles of jazz and rock became fashionable a little earlier than the new mathematical styles of chaos and complexity theory. Jazz and rock were long despised by classical musicians but have emerged as art-forms more accessible than classical music to a wide section of the public. Jazz and rock are no longer to be despised as passing fads. Neither are chaos and complexity theory. But still classical music and classical mathematics are not dead. Mozart lives and so does Euler. When the wheel of fashion turns once more quantum mechanics and hard analysis will once again be in style. ~ Freeman Dyson b. 1923 - Mathematician and Physicist

Benjamin Franklin performed a beautiful experiment using surfactants; on a pond at Clapham Common he poured a small amount of oleic acid a natural surfactant which tends to form a dense film at the water-air interface. He measured the volume required to cover all the pond. Knowing the area he then knew the height of the film something like three nanometers in our current units. ~ Pierre-Gilles de Gennes 1932 to 2007


Thalidomide: The Chemistry Mistake That Killed Thousands of Babies

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List of inventors!
List of inventors!

Hans Tropsch (1889–1935) together with Franz Joseph Emil Fischer (1877–1947) Germany – Fischer–Tropsch process (refinery process).

Salih Tahtawi (fl.1659–1660) Mughal India – seamless globe and celestial globe.

Gyula Takátsy (1914–1980) Hungary – first Microtiter plate.

Charles Macintosh (1766–1843) Scotland – waterproof raincoat life vest.

Gordon Gould (1920–2005) USA – Laser see also Theodore Maiman.

Frank Marugg (inv. 1944) USA – Wheel clamp.

Lloyd Groff Copeman (1865–1956) USA – Electric stove.

Josephine Cochrane (1839–1913) USA – dishwasher.

Stepan Makarov (1849–1904) Russia – Icebreaker Yermak the first true icebreaker able to ride over and crush pack ice.

Albert Coons (1912–1978) USA – Immunofluorescence (microscopy).

Jacques E. Brandenberger (1872–1954) Switzerland – Cellophane.

John Bennett Fenn (1917–2010) USA – Electrospray ionization.

Ephraim Hertzano (around 1950) Roumania / Israel – Rummikub.

Gustaf Erik Pasch (1788–1862) Sweden – safety match.

Jozef Murgas (1864–1929) Slovakia – inventor of the wireless telegraph (forerunner of the radio).

Christoph Gerber (?–) with Calvin Quate (1923–) and with Gerd Binnig (1947–) Germany/USA/Switzerland – Atomic force microscope.

Mikhail Lomonosov (1711–1765) Russia – night vision telescope off-axis reflecting telescope coaxial rotor re-invented smalt.

Ivan Knunyants (1906–1990) Armenia/Russia – capron Nylon 6 polyamide-6.

Samuel Guthrie (physician) (1782–1848) USA – discovered chloroform.

Wallace Carothers (1896–1937) USA – Nylon and Neoprene (together with Arnold Collins).


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Brilliant Quotes By Famous And Awesome Scientists!

Biology is the study of the complex things in the Universe. Physics is the study of the simple ones. ~ Richard Dawkins 1941 – present - Evolutionary Biologist

Experimental science hardly ever affords us more than approximations to the truth; and whenever many agents are concerned we are in great danger of being mistaken. ~ Humphry Davy - 1778 to 1829

There is no law except the law that there is no law. - John Archibald Wheeler 1911 to 2008 Theoretical Physicist

Find the number such that if the whole of it is added to one-seventh of it the result will be nineteen. ~ The Ahmes Papyrus Ancient Egyptian mathematics problem from c. 2200 BC

All of physics is either impossible or trivial. It is impossible until you understand it and then it becomes trivial. ~ Ernest Rutherford 1871 to 1937

There may be babblers wholly ignorant of mathematics who dare to condemn my hypothesis upon the authority of some part of the Bible twisted to suit their purpose. I value them not and scorn their unfounded judgment. - Nicolaus Copernicus 1473 – 1543 Astronomer Mathematician

Archimedes’ finding that the crown was of gold was a discovery; but he invented the method of determining the density of solids. Indeed discoverers must generally be inventors; though inventors are not necessarily discoverers. - William Ramsay 1852 to 1916 Chemist


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